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Indeed, a prominent linguist observed that if colloquialisms can be said to be wearing dressing-gowns and slippers, slang is wearing a perpetual foolish grin. The world of slang is inhabited by odd creatures indeed: All or most slang words are current words whose meanings have been metaphorically shifted.
Each slang metaphor is rooted in a joke, but not in a kind or amusing joke. This is the criterion for distinguishing slang from colloquialisms: This is one of the common objections against slang: This objection is psychological. There are also linguistic ones. McKnight notes that "originating as slang expressions often do, in an insensibility to the meaning of legitimate words, the use of slang checks an acquisition of a command over recognized modes of expression Fowler states that "as style is the great antiseptic, so slang is the great corrupting matter, it is perishable, and infects what is round it".
McKnight also notes that "no one capable of good speaking or good writing is likely to be harmed by the occasional employment of slang, provided that he is conscious of the fact For a number of reasons.
To be picturesque, arresting, striking and, above all, different from others. To avoid the tedium of outmoded hackneyed "common" words. To sound "modern" and "up-to-date". Nor are they put in so many words by those using slang on the conscious level. But these are the main reasons for using slang as explained by modern psychologists and linguists. The circle of users of slang is more narrow than that of colloquialisms.
It is mainly used by the young and uneducated. Fowler defines a dialect as "a variety of a language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and phrase".
So dialects are regional forms of English. Standard English is defined by the Random House Dictionary as the English language as it is written and spoken by literate people in both formal and informal usage and that is universally current while incorporating regional differences. Dialectal peculiarities, especially those of vocabulary, are constantly being incorporated into everyday colloquial speech or slang. From these levels they can be transferred into the common stock, i.
Car, trolley, tram began as dialect words. A snobbish attitude to dialect on the part of certain educationalists and scholars has been deplored by a number of prominent linguists. In the following extract from The Good Companions by J.
Priestley, the outstanding English writer ingeniously and humorously reproduces his native Yorkshire dialect. The speakers are discussing a football match they have just watched. The author makes use of a number of dialect words and grammatical structures and, also, uses spelling to convey certain phonetic features of "broad Yorkshire".
You have to be careful in Bruddersford. Oakroyd made a number of noises with his tongue to show what he thought of them. Behave thi-sen, 10 Jess! What determines the choice of stylistically marked words in each particular situation?
What are the main kinds of informal words? Give a brief description of each group. What is the difference between colloquialisms and slang? What are their common features? Illustrate your answer with examples. The italicized words and word-groups in the following extracts are informal. Look up any words yon do not know in your dictionary. Т h e Flower Girl Now you are talking! What call would a woman with that strength in her have to die of influenza? What become of her new straw hat that should have come to me?
Somebody pinched it; and what I say is, them as pinched it done her in. Oh, thats the new small talk. To do a person in means to kill them. Does that mean that some girl has picked you up? Palmer, if I ask you a straight question, will you please give me a straight answer?
Is your mother divorced? That was what I had already gathered. They seem to be lost without a brass rail to rest their dogs on. A young man, Freddie by name, had invited a pretty young girl April to a riverside picnic. April could not come and sent her little sister to keep Freddie company. It was naturally with something of a pang that Freddie tied the boat up at their destination.
The only living thing for miles around appeared to be an elderly horse which was taking a snack on the river-bank. They could have read Tennyson to each other till they were blue in the face, and not a squawk from a soul.
Still, as the row had given him a nice appetite, he soon dismissed these wistful yearnings and started unpacking the luncheon-basket. And at the end of about twenty minutes he felt that it would not be amiss to chat with his little guest.
It suddenly struck Freddie as a little odd that with July only half over this child should be at large. The summer holidays, as he remembered it, always used to start round about the first of August. One pig, that is to say. He belonged to Miss Maitland, the headmistress. Do you ever pretend to be people in books?
I want to get to the bottom of this thing about the pig. I was playing William Tell. And the silly goop shook it off and started to eat it just as I was shooting, which spoiled my aim and I got him on the left ear. So was Miss Maitland. Especially as I was supposed to be in disgrace at the time, because I had set the dormitory on fire the night before. What colour is her hair? Write out the informal words and word-groups which occur in the above passage and explain why you think the author uses so many of them.
Read the following jokes. Write out the informal words and word-groups and say whether they are colloquial, slang or dialect. A Yankee passenger in an English train was beguiling his fellow passengers with tall stories and remarked: This was too much for the burly Yorkshireman, who sat next to him.
A driver and his family had gathered bluebells, primrose roots, budding twigs and so on from a country lane. Just before they piled into the car to move off Father approached a farmer who was standing nearby and asked: Make up a dialogue using colloquial words from your lists and from the extracts given in the chapter.
In the first dialogue, two undergraduates are discussing why one of them has been expelled from his college. In the second dialogue, the parents of the dismissed student are wondering what to do with him. Older people, as you remember, are apt to be less informal in their choice of words.
Информация о дорожно-транспортных происшествиях, совершенных по вине водителей автотранспортных средств, принадлежащих владельцам лицензии за 6 месяцев года.
Необходимость нашего сегодняшнего разговора назрела не сегодня, мы планировали встречу таким составом несколько позднее, но то, что случилось 12 июля Андрей Валерьевич Геласимов автор многих повестей и рассказ. List of Authors Quoted In this book the reader will find the fundamentals of the word theory and of the main problems associated with English vocabulary, its characteristics and subdivisions.
Each chapter contains both theory and exercises for seminar and independent work. The book is intended for English language students at Pedagogical Universities 3d and 4th years of studies taking the course of English lexicology and fully meets the requirements of the programme in the subject.
This book is the first attempt to embrace both the theory and practical exercises in the one volume, the two parts being integrated. The authors tried to establish links between the theory of lexicology and the reality of living speech, on the one hand, and the languagelearning and language-teaching process, on the other, never losing sight of the fact that the.
The authors tried to present the material in an easy and comprehensible style and, at the same time, to meet the reader on the level of a half-informal talk. With the view of making the book more vivid and interesting, we have introduced extracts from humorous authors, numerous jokes and anecdotes and extracts from books by outstanding writers, aiming to show how different lexicological phenomena are used for stylistic purposes.
Theory and exercises to Ch. Antrushina, exercises to Introduction and Ch. Afanasyeva and to Ch. The authors wish to acknowledge the considerable assistance af-. We are also sincerely grateful to our colleagues at the Pyatigorsk and Irkutsk Institutes of Foreign Languages and at the Pedagogical Institute of Ekaterinburg who read the book in manuscript and made valuable suggestions.
These famous lines reflect one of the fundamental problems of linguistic research: Is there any direct connection between a word and the object it represents? Could a rose have been called by "any other name" as Juliet says?
These and similar questions are answered by lexicological research. Lexicology, a branch of linguistics, is the study of words. For some people studying words may seem uninteresting. But if studied properly, it may well prove just as exciting and novel as unearthing the mysteries of Outer Space. It is significant that many scholars have attempted to define the word as a linguistic phenomenon. Yet none of the definitions can be considered totally satisfactory in all aspects.
It is equally surprising that, despite all the achievements of modern science, certain essential aspects of the nature of the word still escape us. Nor do we fully understand the phenomenon called "language", of which the word is a fundamental unit.
We do not know much about the origin of language and, consequently, of the origin of words. It is true that there are several hypotheses, some of them no less fantastic than the theory of the divine origin of language. We know very little about the nature of relations between the word and the referent i.
If we assume that there is a direct relation between the word and the referent — which seems logical — it gives rise to another question: We do know by now — though with vague uncertainty — that there is nothing accidental about the vocabulary of the language; 1 that each word is a small unit within a vast, efficient and perfectly balanced system. But we do not know why it possesses these qualities, nor do we know much about the processes by which it has acquired them.
The list of unknowns could be extended, but it is probably high time to look at the brighter side and register some of the things we do know about the nature of the word. Учебник для студентов и аспирантов Голубев А. Неверов Составитель -Англо-русский разговорник Куликовская Л.
В помощь учителю иностранного языка. Ускоренный курс Блох М. Куриленко - тем по английскому языку для школьников Кошманова И. Е - Английский язык для студентов университетов Г. У вас нет имени заеб 0 Интересные иллюзии, логические игры и загадки. Интересно Кофе - это ягода.